Diagnostic uncertainty in Acute Heart Failure (AHF)
Overlapping clinical picture and radiological findings
Even in patients with a history of Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) presenting with acute respiratory symptoms such as cough, sputum production, shortness of breath, tachypnea, or pleuritic pain, differentiating AHF from Lower Respiratory Tract Infection (LRTI) is challenging due to the overlapping clinical picture and radiological findings.Ref-1
Elevated levels of B·R·A·H·M·S PCT indicate probable infection in Heart Failure (HF) patients
In AHF patients, significantly elevated PCT levels indicate probable undiagnosed/untreated bacterial infection.
Infection is a major risk factor for mortality in Acute Heart Failure
AHF precipitated by ACS or infection is independently associated with higher 90-day risk of death.
Including B·R·A·H·M·S PCT in clinical diagnosis increases diagnostic certainty of pneumonia in AHF patients
PCT rises only in cases of pneumonia, thus distinguishing these patients from AHF or identifying concomitant infection in AHF. In cases of diagnostic uncertainty, a PCT value of 0.1 μg/L has a negative predictive value of 96% to rule out pneumonia.Ref-4
Reduction of uncertainty by 82% if pneumonia is ruled out by PCT <0.25 μg/L
References Early Pneumonia Diagnosis with B·R·A·H·M·S PCT